How to classify integrated circuits

There are quite a variety of integrated circuits, which can be divided into two categories: analog integrated circuits and digital integrated circuits according to their functions. The former is used to generate, amplify and process various analog electrical signals, while the latter is used to generate, amplify and process various digital electrical signals.

According to different manufacturing processes, integrated circuits can be divided into three categories: semiconductor integrated circuits, film integrated circuits, and hybrid integrated circuits, as shown in Figure 9-1. Semiconductor integrated circuits use semiconductor process technology to produce integrated circuits including resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes and other components on silicon substrates. Film integrated circuits are fabricated on insulating objects such as glass or ceramic sheets in the form of “films” Integrated circuits of passive components such as resistors and capacitors. The numerical range of passive components can be made very wide, and the accuracy can be made very high.

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However, the current technical level has not been able to make active devices such as crystal diodes and triodes in the form of “films”, so the application range of film integrated circuits is greatly limited. In practical applications, most of them are passive devices such as semiconductor integrated circuits or discrete components such as diodes, transistors, and other active devices, so that they form a whole. This is a hybrid integrated circuit. Depending on the thickness of the film, film integrated circuits are divided into two types: thick film integrated circuits (thickness of 1 to 10 μm) and thin film integrated circuits (thickness of 1 μm or less). The main problems encountered in the maintenance of home appliances and general electronic manufacturing are semiconductor integrated circuits, thick film circuits and a small number of hybrid integrated circuits.

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Characteristics of integrated circuits

Multi-purpose transistors are used in integrated circuits, and less inductance, capacitance and resistance, especially large-capacity capacitors, because the production of these components requires a large area of ?silicon, resulting in increased costs.

Direct connection between the various circuits in the integrated circuit (that is, the two circuits are directly connected by wires), and less capacitor connection, this can reduce the area of ?the integrated circuit and make it suitable for circuits of various frequencies.

Symmetric circuits (such as differential circuits) are mostly used in integrated circuits, which can correct deviations in the manufacturing process.

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Once an integrated circuit is produced, the internal circuit cannot be changed, unlike discrete component circuits that can be changed at any time, so when a component in the integrated circuit is damaged, only the entire integrated circuit can be replaced.

Integrated circuits cannot generally be used alone, and need to be combined with discrete components to form a practical circuit. For an integrated circuit, most electronic technicians only need to know what kind of functions it has inside the circuit, that is, to understand the internal structure block diagram and the function of each pin.

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Recent semiconductor industry outlook

Singapore Airlines did not provide in-depth prospects for the semiconductor market in the second quarter. However, CEO John Neuffer said: “Continuous macroeconomic turmoil related to the pandemic has brought huge uncertainties to the global semiconductor market, and this uncertainty may Continue in the middle of the month. “

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The organization’s perspective is supported by the second quarter forecast provided by many chip manufacturers, including Xilinx and NXp Semiconductors. Several manufacturers pointed out that COVID-19 may interrupt production and transportation operations in the June quarter, thereby affecting sales. In addition, as coronaviruses weaken consumer demand, electronics manufacturers may significantly cut their parts orders.

A recent forecast released by Digitimes shows that global smartphone shipments will decline by 15% in 2020. As SIA reports that communications chip sales accounted for 33% of semiconductor sales last year, consumer mobile device demand will affect the global component market.

Ideally, the global coronavirus will recover in the second half of 2020 and encourage public spending to recover. Otherwise, by 2021, the semiconductor industry may experience a major market contraction.

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Wearable sensor market size

Growth forecast market research report.
 
2020-2025 wearable sensor market size growth forecast

The wearable sensor market report supports future market forecasts related to the wearable sensor market size, revenue, production, consumption, gross profit margin and other important factors. It also examines the roles of well-known wearable sensor market participants in the industry, including their company profiles. While highlighting the key drivers of the wearable sensor market, the report also conducted a comprehensive study of the future trends and development of the market.

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The growing demand for the telecommunications industry and the healthcare industry has also increased the demand for wearable sensors. The increasing use of wearable sensors in consumer electronics and wearable devices, as well as increased health awareness among consumers, support the growth of the wearable sensor market. The increasing adoption of MEMS and NEMS technologies and the Internet of Things have driven the adoption of wearable sensors. Other factors driving market growth include the growth of the elderly population, technological progress, and the development of smart technologies. New emerging markets, emerging consumer groups and increasing applications will provide growth opportunities for the wearable sensor market in the coming years.

In 2017, North America accounted for the highest share of the global wearable sensor market. The main factors driving the growth of the wearable sensor market in the region include the mature healthcare sector, rising healthcare costs, increased consumer awareness, and concerns about health issues. The growing demand for consumer electronics products, technological advances and substantial investment in research and development further support the market growth in the region. The government has issued favorable regulations on wearable sensors and the growing demand for fitness equipment has driven the development of the North American wearable sensor market. The continuous development of smart technologies and the increasing popularity of connected devices and the Internet of Things have further increased the demand for wearable sensors in the region.

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Ni-Cd rechargeable battery


Comparison between
nickel- metal hydride batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries. Nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries are currently the mainstream rechargeable batteries in the market. It uses nickel oxide as the anode and a metal alloy that has absorbed hydrogen as the cathode. It can generally charge and discharge more than 500 cycles. Since the raw materials do not contain mercury and cadmium, there is no need to recycle them.

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Ni-Cd rechargeable battery

Nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries have been widely used in the early days of the public, and can be repeated about 500 times of charge and discharge, but after about 10 times of charge and discharge, a memory effect will occur; another disadvantage is that during charge and discharge, the cathode will grow cadmium Needle crystals sometimes penetrate the separator and cause internal dendritic short circuits. Because it contains cadmium, it must be recycled.

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Nickel-cadmium battery Nickel-cadmium battery is the earliest battery type used in mobile phones, notebook computers and other equipment. It has good large current discharge characteristics, strong resistance to overcharge and discharge, and simple maintenance. The most fatal shortcoming of nickel-cadmium batteries is that if they are not handled properly during the charging and discharging process, a serious “memory effect” will occur, which greatly shortens the service life.

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The so-called “memory effect” is that before the battery is charged, the battery’s power is not completely discharged, and over time will cause the battery capacity to decrease. The small bubbles, accumulated over time, these bubbles reduce the area of ??the battery plate and also indirectly affect the battery capacity. Of course, we can alleviate the “memory effect” by mastering reasonable charging and discharging methods. In addition, cadmium is toxic, so nickel-cadmium batteries are not conducive to the protection of the ecological environment. Numerous shortcomings have made nickel-cadmium batteries basically eliminated from the application range of digital device batteries.

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About the risks of corporate network security

At the critical moment of the prevention and control of the New Coronary pneumonia epidemic and the resumption of production and production of enterprises, according to relevant departments, overseas hacker organizations took the opportunity to attack and destroy various domestic websites, information systems and network equipment. It is understood that many ApT organizations use the sensitive words of epidemic hotspots as bait to carry out phishing attacks, penetration and destruction, spread ransomware, steal information, and paralyze the network through social networks, emails, website vulnerabilities and other channels. Recently, some enterprises in our city have successively experienced network security incidents. Some enterprise websites have been tampered with by malicious hackers abroad. The core data cannot be restored by the ransomware encryption, which seriously affects the normal production and operation of enterprises. In order to fully implement the decision-making and deployment of the higher-level enterprises on the resumption of production and production during the epidemic prevention and control period, all units are required to attach great importance to comprehensively investigate hidden risks of network security risks, strengthen network security protection, and effectively guarantee the safe and stable operation of network systems.

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Risk Analysis

The hidden dangers of remote access and network boundaries are prominent. More and more companies are adopting various flexible methods to support employees’ home office remote work. Under the more urgent requirements of remote office work, the internal business systems of the company are temporarily opened to remote access for employees through Internet mapping, and the protection measures of these business systems It may not be able to resist all kinds of scanning and malicious attacks on the Internet, and it may not be possible to configure identity authentication and data encryption transmission mechanisms in time, which leads to illegal users establishing system access without identity authentication or intercepting business data through illegal means. For enterprises that have deployed access devices such as VpNs and bastion machines, as the number of users and the number of resources required to access have skyrocketed, once the negligence of account password strength and resource access rights management occurs, the enterprise intranet will be exposed more seriously Happening.

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The cyber security risks of business data and core data are increasing. Currently in a special period of the epidemic, a large number of malware or phishing emails named using epidemic-related information are emerging, inducing users to click malicious links to open or edit malicious files. The ultimate goal is to implant Trojans, remote control, and destroy data. At the same time, it is also a high-risk period of ransomware in the near future. If the protection is not strong, once the enterprise data is maliciously encrypted by the ransomware, it can hardly be recovered, causing serious losses. In addition, some enterprises are unfamiliar with the temporarily used third-party office software, which may easily cause network security problems such as file leakage and illegal data access.

personal office terminals bring new network security risks. Telework requires the use of employees’ own computers, mobile phones and other terminals. personal terminals are difficult to manage in a unified manner. As a result, personal terminal security will directly or indirectly affect the security of the corporate intranet and even infect the fragile information systems in the corporate intranet. Malicious operations initiated through personal terminals may directly lead to the unavailability of important business systems and devices on the intranet. Sensitive data and services in the corporate intranet may be used by identity fraud, unauthorized access by personal terminals, and other illegal operations, resulting in data destruction Or leaked.

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護理嬰兒皮膚有哪些要點

護理嬰兒皮膚有哪些要點

溫水是最好的洗滌劑。用溫水洗臉、洗澡,由於新生兒皮膚的特殊性,不建議經常使用洗滌和防護設備,但可以使用幾天。每天用不好,會刺激皮膚;用不好,清水不是很幹淨。

消毒噴霧推薦AQ因為他除左多功能配方,仲有特別為小朋友而設嘅幼兒抗菌防敏配方,就算瞳妹妹咁細都用得!除左消毒,對於嬰幼兒常見嘅皮膚問題(例如紅疹、濕疹、尿布疹)都有幫助,因為佢為小朋友皮膚表層加左一層抗敏保護膜,減少敏感源同細菌接觸小朋友,對抗嬰兒常見皮膚問題,自然令小朋友無咁容易病。

注意清潔皮膚的褶皺。新生兒汗腺尿,頸部的強,多頻率,耳,腋部,腹股溝,臀部等皮膚皺褶的背後,很容易出現潰瘍或感染,但是應當洗和幹燥。

你不能只用藥物來填充它。 當發現嬰兒的皮疹或斑塊時,一定不要輕易服用藥物。 新生兒皮膚角質層薄,血管豐富,吸收能力高,外用藥物易引起刺激、吸收中毒或藥物副作用。

AQ消毒噴霧除左多功能配方,仲有特別為小朋友而設嘅幼兒抗菌防敏配方,除左消毒,對於嬰幼兒常見嘅皮膚問題(例如紅疹、濕疹、尿布疹)都有幫助,因為佢為小朋友皮膚表層加左一層抗敏保護膜,減少敏感源同細菌接觸小朋友,對抗常見的嬰兒皮膚問題,自然令小朋友無咁容易病。

把母乳塗在嬰兒臉上是不合適的。將媽媽的乳汁塗在寶寶的臉上,不會使面部皮膚變白變嫩,但會對寶寶造成傷害,由於營養豐富的母乳是細菌生長的溫床,細菌很容易進入毛孔,侵入嬰兒虛弱的皮膚。

洗衣房清洗和消毒應徹底。新生兒的衣服要常洗常換,並准備專用盆。清洗應用開水燙洗,使用溫和的肥皂或嬰兒專用洗衣液,漂洗幾次要多,以減少殘留的化學物質的刺激。洗衣機應暴露在陽光下,進行徹底消毒。

提及異位性皮膚炎,很多人比較陌生,這是容易病發於嬰幼兒、兒童、青少年時期的慢性疾病。在出現嬰兒皮膚紅疹、敏感、兒童皮膚敏感等問題時,家長在瞭解嬰兒皮膚問題時,還需要考慮到異位元性皮膚炎。AQ幼兒抗菌防敏配方具有預防和治療的好效果,讓孩子擁有健康肌膚。

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八種接種疫苗的禁忌症

給嬰兒接種疫苗實際上是保護他們安全的一種方法。然而,在錯誤的時間給嬰兒接種疫苗可能會弄巧成拙。讓我們了解一下接種疫苗時的禁忌症。

卡介苗禁忌

早產兒,出生體重較低(小於2500克)的嬰兒和難產的嬰兒應注意..發燒、腹瀉和嚴重皮膚病的兒童應緩慢生長。肺結核,急性傳染病,心腎疾病,免疫缺陷兒禁用。

三價脊髓灰質炎疫苗禁忌混

如果嬰兒在接種疫苗前一周腹瀉,或一天腹瀉4次以上,並有發熱或急性疾病,應暫停接種。對於免疫缺陷的嬰兒,禁止使用免疫抑制劑(如激素)。對牛奶過敏的嬰兒可以服用液體疫苗。

百白破疫苗禁忌

發熱、急性或慢性疾病急性發作的嬰兒應為慢性種。 中樞神經系統疾病(例如癲癇) ,適用於有中風病史的嬰兒和嚴重過敏的嬰兒。

麻疹疫苗禁忌

患麻疹的兒童不必接種疫苗。發燒或活動性肺結核的嬰兒禁止有過敏史(特別是對雞蛋過敏史)。注射丙種球蛋白的嬰兒要到一個月的間隔才能接種。

乙型腦炎疫苗禁忌

發熱,急性或寶寶應緩種慢性病急性發作。有腦或神經系統功能紊亂,過敏嬰兒禁止。

流行性腦脊髓膜炎的疫苗禁忌症

禁止嬰兒患腦及神經系統疾病(癲癇、癔病、腦炎後遺症、抽搐等)、過敏體質、嚴重心腎疾病、活動性肺結核。發燒,嬰兒的急性疾病可以減緩。

乙肝疫苗禁忌

肝炎,發熱,急性感染,慢性重症,過敏體質的寶寶禁用。

甲肝疫苗禁忌

發熱,急性疾病或寶寶應緩種慢性疾病的急性發作。免疫缺陷,正在接受免疫抑制治療的嬰兒,嬰兒過敏者禁用。

寶寶出生後的6個星期就可以接種輪狀病毒嬰兒疫苗,市場上是有兩種輪狀病毒疫苗可以打,具體的話要諮詢醫生,需要接種嬰兒疫苗要看時間表安排,具體可以向家庭醫生詢問詳情。

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如何鑒別飲料是否含糖

要查看是否含糖飲料,我們必須學會看包裝信息。如果沒有特別標注“無糖”或“低糖”字樣,一般碳酸飲料,果汁飲料,茶飲料等含糖量基本> 5%。

如普通碳酸飲料如可樂、檸檬汽水、橙汁汽水等含糖量約為10%,茶飲料含糖量約為5-10%,普通涼茶飲料含糖量約為9%。所以不要以為它不甜,因為它的品牌是“XX茶”。

有些飲料是無糖的,為什么它是甜的呢? 這是因為,為了更好的口味,無糖飲料經常使用甜味劑代替蔗糖,例如阿斯巴甜和醋磺內酯等老式的人造甜味劑。

甜味劑聽起來像工業產品,好像它們不是很健康,但有一個誤解。

首先,可以添加到飲料中的甜味劑都是國家允許的;其次要講究劑量,有些代糖的甜度是砂糖的幾十幾百倍,因此用量非常少,就目前的研究來看適量的甜味劑是安全的。

減肥無糖飲料

當然首推礦泉水啦!有事沒事多喝水,此外就是無糖蘇打水,及無添加的純茶。如果想要甜味帶來的滿足感,又害怕發胖,可以選擇一些在飲料包裝上標注“無糖”的飲料。

在這些無糖飲料中,盡可能選擇一些含有天然代糖的無糖飲料。

寶礦力沖劑」的電解質成份與人體體液相近,能迅速被人體吸收,因此特別適合於運動、體力勞動、工作、沐浴及起床後飲用。

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怎樣預防類風濕關節炎反複發作

怎樣預防類風濕關節炎反複發作

預防及控制感染

有些病人在初期會有扁桃體炎、鼻竇炎、齲齒等傳染病。人們普遍認為,這些疾病是由病原體的免疫反應引起的,但實際上,它也會在一定程度上引起類風濕關節炎。許多患者在早期沒有控制這些炎症的傳播,這給類風濕關節炎一個機會。因此,在體內控制感染灶可以有效降低類風濕關節炎的複發率。

類風濕性關節炎標靶藥是一種小分子的口服劑型抑制劑,它与众不同之處在于運用全新的JAK藥物機理,能夠直接的進入發炎細胞內層作用,很好的抑制細胞發炎的活化反應,從而幫助減少細胞激素的生成,快速有效的緩解患處的疼痛。

盡量避免風寒濕邪侵襲

導致類風濕性關節炎的原因很多,都是由於長期受寒、下雨、受潮所致,因此患者平時應注意避免穿濕衣服、濕鞋、濕襪子等,也不要經常喝冰飲料。勞動或運動後,不要直接用冷水洗澡,並盡快換衣服。

類風濕關節炎是一種常見的慢性疾病,近些年來患有該病的年輕人越來越多,因此它不屬於老年病。該疾病的特點是很頑固,一旦患病不容易被治癒。初期的症狀是局部關節痛,嚴重一些就會有關節紅腫症狀,若是再嚴重則會造成殘障。

注意勞逸結合

中國傳統醫學中的風、寒、濕的入侵主要是由於過度疲勞而引起的氣的損傷而引起的。某些類風濕性關節炎患者在調理一段時間後,病情進展緩慢,如過度勞累,容易引起疾病複發或惡化,因此在正常生活中,必須注意工作和休息的結合。

類風濕關節炎的治療以控制炎症為主,目標是減輕症狀如關節紅腫、疼痛,阻截關節侵蝕及變形,從而保持活動能力。

保持樂觀積極的心態

物理問題,有時心理狀態也有直接的聯系,如果病人是在長期的精神緊張,悲痛,抑鬱之下,難免會處於良好的健康警報心情。

保持運動習慣,增強體質

平時有條件的情況下,多參與體育鍛煉,比如散步、慢跑、跳廣場舞、打太極等,都能夠增強機體抵抗風寒濕邪的能力。

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