How to classify integrated circuits

There are quite a variety of integrated circuits, which can be divided into two categories: analog integrated circuits and digital integrated circuits according to their functions. The former is used to generate, amplify and process various analog electrical signals, while the latter is used to generate, amplify and process various digital electrical signals.

According to different manufacturing processes, integrated circuits can be divided into three categories: semiconductor integrated circuits, film integrated circuits, and hybrid integrated circuits, as shown in Figure 9-1. Semiconductor integrated circuits use semiconductor process technology to produce integrated circuits including resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes and other components on silicon substrates. Film integrated circuits are fabricated on insulating objects such as glass or ceramic sheets in the form of “films” Integrated circuits of passive components such as resistors and capacitors. The numerical range of passive components can be made very wide, and the accuracy can be made very high.

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However, the current technical level has not been able to make active devices such as crystal diodes and triodes in the form of “films”, so the application range of film integrated circuits is greatly limited. In practical applications, most of them are passive devices such as semiconductor integrated circuits or discrete components such as diodes, transistors, and other active devices, so that they form a whole. This is a hybrid integrated circuit. Depending on the thickness of the film, film integrated circuits are divided into two types: thick film integrated circuits (thickness of 1 to 10 μm) and thin film integrated circuits (thickness of 1 μm or less). The main problems encountered in the maintenance of home appliances and general electronic manufacturing are semiconductor integrated circuits, thick film circuits and a small number of hybrid integrated circuits.

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Characteristics of integrated circuits

Multi-purpose transistors are used in integrated circuits, and less inductance, capacitance and resistance, especially large-capacity capacitors, because the production of these components requires a large area of ?silicon, resulting in increased costs.

Direct connection between the various circuits in the integrated circuit (that is, the two circuits are directly connected by wires), and less capacitor connection, this can reduce the area of ?the integrated circuit and make it suitable for circuits of various frequencies.

Symmetric circuits (such as differential circuits) are mostly used in integrated circuits, which can correct deviations in the manufacturing process.

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Once an integrated circuit is produced, the internal circuit cannot be changed, unlike discrete component circuits that can be changed at any time, so when a component in the integrated circuit is damaged, only the entire integrated circuit can be replaced.

Integrated circuits cannot generally be used alone, and need to be combined with discrete components to form a practical circuit. For an integrated circuit, most electronic technicians only need to know what kind of functions it has inside the circuit, that is, to understand the internal structure block diagram and the function of each pin.

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Recent semiconductor industry outlook

Singapore Airlines did not provide in-depth prospects for the semiconductor market in the second quarter. However, CEO John Neuffer said: “Continuous macroeconomic turmoil related to the pandemic has brought huge uncertainties to the global semiconductor market, and this uncertainty may Continue in the middle of the month. “

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The organization’s perspective is supported by the second quarter forecast provided by many chip manufacturers, including Xilinx and NXp Semiconductors. Several manufacturers pointed out that COVID-19 may interrupt production and transportation operations in the June quarter, thereby affecting sales. In addition, as coronaviruses weaken consumer demand, electronics manufacturers may significantly cut their parts orders.

A recent forecast released by Digitimes shows that global smartphone shipments will decline by 15% in 2020. As SIA reports that communications chip sales accounted for 33% of semiconductor sales last year, consumer mobile device demand will affect the global component market.

Ideally, the global coronavirus will recover in the second half of 2020 and encourage public spending to recover. Otherwise, by 2021, the semiconductor industry may experience a major market contraction.

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Wearable sensor market size

Growth forecast market research report.
 
2020-2025 wearable sensor market size growth forecast

The wearable sensor market report supports future market forecasts related to the wearable sensor market size, revenue, production, consumption, gross profit margin and other important factors. It also examines the roles of well-known wearable sensor market participants in the industry, including their company profiles. While highlighting the key drivers of the wearable sensor market, the report also conducted a comprehensive study of the future trends and development of the market.

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The growing demand for the telecommunications industry and the healthcare industry has also increased the demand for wearable sensors. The increasing use of wearable sensors in consumer electronics and wearable devices, as well as increased health awareness among consumers, support the growth of the wearable sensor market. The increasing adoption of MEMS and NEMS technologies and the Internet of Things have driven the adoption of wearable sensors. Other factors driving market growth include the growth of the elderly population, technological progress, and the development of smart technologies. New emerging markets, emerging consumer groups and increasing applications will provide growth opportunities for the wearable sensor market in the coming years.

In 2017, North America accounted for the highest share of the global wearable sensor market. The main factors driving the growth of the wearable sensor market in the region include the mature healthcare sector, rising healthcare costs, increased consumer awareness, and concerns about health issues. The growing demand for consumer electronics products, technological advances and substantial investment in research and development further support the market growth in the region. The government has issued favorable regulations on wearable sensors and the growing demand for fitness equipment has driven the development of the North American wearable sensor market. The continuous development of smart technologies and the increasing popularity of connected devices and the Internet of Things have further increased the demand for wearable sensors in the region.

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Ni-Cd rechargeable battery


Comparison between
nickel- metal hydride batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries. Nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries are currently the mainstream rechargeable batteries in the market. It uses nickel oxide as the anode and a metal alloy that has absorbed hydrogen as the cathode. It can generally charge and discharge more than 500 cycles. Since the raw materials do not contain mercury and cadmium, there is no need to recycle them.

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Ni-Cd rechargeable battery

Nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries have been widely used in the early days of the public, and can be repeated about 500 times of charge and discharge, but after about 10 times of charge and discharge, a memory effect will occur; another disadvantage is that during charge and discharge, the cathode will grow cadmium Needle crystals sometimes penetrate the separator and cause internal dendritic short circuits. Because it contains cadmium, it must be recycled.

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Nickel-cadmium battery Nickel-cadmium battery is the earliest battery type used in mobile phones, notebook computers and other equipment. It has good large current discharge characteristics, strong resistance to overcharge and discharge, and simple maintenance. The most fatal shortcoming of nickel-cadmium batteries is that if they are not handled properly during the charging and discharging process, a serious “memory effect” will occur, which greatly shortens the service life.

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The so-called “memory effect” is that before the battery is charged, the battery’s power is not completely discharged, and over time will cause the battery capacity to decrease. The small bubbles, accumulated over time, these bubbles reduce the area of ??the battery plate and also indirectly affect the battery capacity. Of course, we can alleviate the “memory effect” by mastering reasonable charging and discharging methods. In addition, cadmium is toxic, so nickel-cadmium batteries are not conducive to the protection of the ecological environment. Numerous shortcomings have made nickel-cadmium batteries basically eliminated from the application range of digital device batteries.

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About the risks of corporate network security

At the critical moment of the prevention and control of the New Coronary pneumonia epidemic and the resumption of production and production of enterprises, according to relevant departments, overseas hacker organizations took the opportunity to attack and destroy various domestic websites, information systems and network equipment. It is understood that many ApT organizations use the sensitive words of epidemic hotspots as bait to carry out phishing attacks, penetration and destruction, spread ransomware, steal information, and paralyze the network through social networks, emails, website vulnerabilities and other channels. Recently, some enterprises in our city have successively experienced network security incidents. Some enterprise websites have been tampered with by malicious hackers abroad. The core data cannot be restored by the ransomware encryption, which seriously affects the normal production and operation of enterprises. In order to fully implement the decision-making and deployment of the higher-level enterprises on the resumption of production and production during the epidemic prevention and control period, all units are required to attach great importance to comprehensively investigate hidden risks of network security risks, strengthen network security protection, and effectively guarantee the safe and stable operation of network systems.

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Risk Analysis

The hidden dangers of remote access and network boundaries are prominent. More and more companies are adopting various flexible methods to support employees’ home office remote work. Under the more urgent requirements of remote office work, the internal business systems of the company are temporarily opened to remote access for employees through Internet mapping, and the protection measures of these business systems It may not be able to resist all kinds of scanning and malicious attacks on the Internet, and it may not be possible to configure identity authentication and data encryption transmission mechanisms in time, which leads to illegal users establishing system access without identity authentication or intercepting business data through illegal means. For enterprises that have deployed access devices such as VpNs and bastion machines, as the number of users and the number of resources required to access have skyrocketed, once the negligence of account password strength and resource access rights management occurs, the enterprise intranet will be exposed more seriously Happening.

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The cyber security risks of business data and core data are increasing. Currently in a special period of the epidemic, a large number of malware or phishing emails named using epidemic-related information are emerging, inducing users to click malicious links to open or edit malicious files. The ultimate goal is to implant Trojans, remote control, and destroy data. At the same time, it is also a high-risk period of ransomware in the near future. If the protection is not strong, once the enterprise data is maliciously encrypted by the ransomware, it can hardly be recovered, causing serious losses. In addition, some enterprises are unfamiliar with the temporarily used third-party office software, which may easily cause network security problems such as file leakage and illegal data access.

personal office terminals bring new network security risks. Telework requires the use of employees’ own computers, mobile phones and other terminals. personal terminals are difficult to manage in a unified manner. As a result, personal terminal security will directly or indirectly affect the security of the corporate intranet and even infect the fragile information systems in the corporate intranet. Malicious operations initiated through personal terminals may directly lead to the unavailability of important business systems and devices on the intranet. Sensitive data and services in the corporate intranet may be used by identity fraud, unauthorized access by personal terminals, and other illegal operations, resulting in data destruction Or leaked.

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